3D Aggregate Cultures

3D Aggregate Cultures

The process is scaffold-free, where multiple human lung cell types placed in 3D culture condition produce their own scaffold system and form the required tissue. Once the differentiated cells have been through a sufficient period of growth, they are placed into the 3D tissue microenvironment to re-differentiate -usually within 24 hours (Figure 1). At this point, the primary cells begin to undergo several changes that lead to the formation of an in vitro tissue structure that closely matches that of the lung in vivo, including:

Completely human based

- Only differentiated primary human pulmonary cells are used

No stem cells, no iPS

- Therefore cells differentiate faster into the required pulmonary tissue.


- There is no need for added scaffold as the composition of the culture ensures that the cells themselves produce the natural saffold they grow on.

Markers resemble the primary human lung

- Cytoskeleton arrangement (Figure 2), surfactant production, increased E and decreased N cadherin levels. Also, drastically reduced inflammatory cytokine production.

Immune system

- The unique features of the technology allow cellular components of the immune system to be added and therefore mimic the responses of the human lung more closely.

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